In the first months of 2022, cyclonic activity in the South-West Indian Ocean intensified, with severe tropical weather systems killing at least 890 people and affecting over 2.8 million people across Southern Africa. In January,
Tropical Storm Ana affected more than 1.3 million people and caused 171 deaths in Madagascar (131,000 people), Mozambique (185,000 people), Malawi (1 million people) and Zimbabwe (4,000 people). In February, Tropical Cyclones Batsirai and Emnati affected 423,800 people and killed 136 in Madagascar, while Tropical Storm Dumako affected more than 33,700 people and caused 14 deaths in Madagascar (nearly 10,000 people, including 14 dead) and Mozambique (23,700 people). In March, the Tropical Cyclone Gombe weather system impacted nearly 900,000 people and killed 103 in Mozambique (736,000 people, including 63 dead) and Malawi (159,000 people, including 39 dead). In April moderate Tropical Storm Jasmine affected nearly 5,000 people in southern Madagascar, while torrential rains led to flooding and mudslides that impacted more than 123,800 people and killed 448 in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape in South Africa in April and May.
Heavy rains and floods contributed to outbreaks of communicable and water-borne diseases, and heightened food insecurity and malnutrition. Cholera outbreaks were reported in Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia, while an increase in malaria was reported in Mozambique and Madagascar, and measles was recorded in Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. In addition, health authorities in Malawi and Mozambique declared outbreaks of wild polio. In the Grand Sud-Est of Madagascar, Crisis levels of food insecurity (IPC phase 3) were projected in five districts, where food insecurity does not ordinarily rise above the Stressed (IPC phase 2) level. In Malawi, many families lost their food stocks when their homes were destroyed or flooded by the tropical storms and about 52,000 people remained displaced by the end of April.
Meanwhile, severe drought persisted in southern Angola and the Grand Sud of Madagascar, while conflict in northern Mozambique continued to drive humanitarian needs. In southern Angola, about 1.58 million people were acutely food insecure and around 114,000 children under age 5 were projected to require treatment for acute malnutrition between October 2021 and March 2022. In the Grand Sud of Madagascar, despite improvements—largely due to the significant scale-up in humanitarian assistance 7 out of 10 districts remained in Crisis (IPC phase 3) food insecurity and nearly 24 communes had emergency acute malnutrition rates. Meanwhile, in Cabo Delgado Province of Mozambique, at least 1.5 million people—including 945,000 internally displaced—were in need of humanitarian assistance, and attacks shifted southward to districts previously not affected.
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs